And Fe2 O3 circumstances, the appropriate energy, E – Se /2, = film thickness of 170 nm is taken into consideration, as well as energy is shut to that for sputtering, during which the energy reduction on the carbon foil of 100 nm is viewed as. The X-ray (Cu-k) attenuation length LXA is obtained to be eleven.eight [80], as well as the attenuation depth is three.7, 4.3 and 6.0 for diffraction angles of 36.six , 43 and 61 , respectively; therefore, the X-ray attenuation correction is insignificant.Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, five,twelve ofFigure 7. XRD patterns of TiN movie on SiO2 glass substrate: unirradiated ( and irradiated by 100 MeV Xe at 0.72 1012 cm-2 .Figure 8. XRD intensity normalized to unirradiated movies of TiN as being a perform of ion fluence for 60 MeV Ar ( , ), 90 MeV Ni ( , , , ), 100 MeV Xe (o, x, ) and 200 MeV Xe ( , ions. Diffraction plane (111) at diffraction angle of 36.6 is MAC-VC-PABC-ST7612AA1 Drug-Linker Conjugates for ADC indicated by , , o and for SiO2 substrate, (200) at 43 by , , x and for SiO2 substrate, (111) by for C-Al2 O3 substrate and (220) at 61 by and for R-Al2 O3 substrate. Linear match is indicated by dotted lines. An estimated error of XRD intensity is ten .Quantum Beam Sci. 2021, 5,13 ofTable five. XRD information of TiN movies. Ion, vitality (E in MeV), XRD intensity degradation (YXD ) for (111) and (200) diffraction on SiO2 and C-Al2 O3 , substrates, YXD for (220) diffraction on R-Al2 O3 within the parenthesis, E = E – E (power loss in carbon foil of one hundred nm) (MeV) and electronic (Se ) and nuclear (Sn ) stopping powers in keV/nm and projected assortment Rp calculated applying SRIM2013 and sputtering yield Ysp of Ti. Se (TRIM1997) is given in parenthesis. Energy Ion (MeV)forty Ar 58 Ni 136 Xe 136 XeYXD (10-12 cm2 ) 0.14 0.27 (0.2) 0.50 (0.35) 0.E (MeV) 60 89 99Se (keV/nm) 9.41 (9.33) 15.5 (16.5) (25.5) thirty.85 (30.25)Sn (keV/nm) 0.0135 0.0305 0.19 0.Rp Ysp (Ti) seven.six 8.6 six.9 10 51.8 147 38060 90 100The characteristic length (LEQ ) is estimated for being four.5, four.4, 4.two and four.0 nm for 60 MeV Ar7 , 90 MeV Ni10 , a hundred MeV Xe14 and 200 MeV Xe14 , respectively, in the FM4-64 Chemical empirical formula of your single-electron loss cross-section 1L (10-16 cm2 ) of 0.43 (60 MeV Ar7 ), 0.44 (90 MeV Ni10 ), 0.46 (a hundred MeV Xe14 ) and 0.48 (200 MeV Xe14 ) [83,84]. Here, 1L = 1L (Ti) 1L (N), plus the ionization possible IP and Neff are (IP = 143 eV and Neff = one) for Ar7 , with these described in Area for Ni10 and Xe14 . LEQ is considerably smaller sized compared to the movie thickness, and hence the charge-state impact is insignificant. It truly is observed that sputtered Ti collected from the carbon foil is proportional to your ion fluence, as shown in Figure 9 for 60 MeV Ar, 90 MeV Ni, one hundred MeV Xe and 200 MeV Xe ions. The sputtering yield of Ti is obtained applying the assortment efficiency of 0.34 while in the carbon foil collector [47] plus the results are given in Table 5. Sputtered N collected while in the carbon foil is obtained for being 0.four 1014 and 0.44 1014 cm-2 with an estimated error of twenty for 200 MeV Xe at 0.22 1012 cm-2 and 60 MeV Ar at two.8 1012 cm-2, respectively, and this can be comparable with all the Ti areal density of 0.four 1014 cm-2 (200 MeV Xe) and 0.475 1014 cm-2 (60 MeV Ar). The results imply stoichiometric sputtering, as a result of the assortment efficiency of N while in the carbon foil collector of 0.35 [55], which can be near to that of Ti. So, the total sputtering yield (Ti N) is obtained by doubling Ysp (Ti) in Table 5. The sputtering yields of TiN (YEC) as a consequence of elastic collisions might be estimated assuming that YEC is proportional for the nuclear stopping electrical power. Right here, the proportional continual is get.

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