Olerant Piazar than salt-sensitive Behta [82]. Various mycorrhizal responsiveness of cultivars may be the result of plantand/or AMF-related mechanisms. The enhancement of plant P and K uptake by AMF have been reported and was regarded among the list of principal factors for the amelioration of growth in salt-affected RGS19 Inhibitor Synonyms plants colonized by AMF [92]. Earlier research discovered that the enhanced growth of mycorrhizal plants in saline circumstances is highly associated to the mycorrhizalmediated enhancement of host plant P nutrition [93]. AMF in salt-stress is responsible for improved P uptake as a result of integral vacuolar membranes and compartmentalization Na+ ions no matter integral P in host plants [94]. Recently, Ebrahim et al. [85] identified that the AMF inoculation (R. fasciculatus) improved the accumulation of N, P, K, and Mg, it lowered the Na+ concentration. Furthermore, AMF can raise the accumulation of osmotic regulators such as soluble sugar [95], proline, betaine, and polyamines [96,97] in plants beneath salt stress. Kong et al. [98] confirmed that the tomato plants and mixed inoculation of AMF (R. clarum and R. intraradices) formed a symbiotic relationship that considerably enhanced the development of plants and increased the concentration of vitamin C, soluble sugar and lycopene in the tomato fruit (Table 2). Compared together with the control, the single fruit weight as well as the yield per plant inside the AMF treatment were drastically elevated. AMF promoted tomato plants absorption of N and decreased the absorption of Na+ . Beneath NaCl salinity, R. etunicatum than other AMF counterparts F. mosseae and R. irregular enhanced plant development promotion mostly the root growth [41]. 5.2. K+ /Na+ Ratio Because reduced growth below salinity is partially brought on by ion imbalances and/or non-availability of nutrient ions resulting from their δ Opioid Receptor/DOR Antagonist site competitors with major ions (Na+ and Cl- ) in the soil [99], the sustained growth of AMF+ plants beneath salinity is partially depending on enhanced uptake of nutrients and keeping favorable ionic ratios [100]. AMF inoculation can sustain the K+ /Na+ balance below salt strain. AMF restricted the transport of Na from roots to shoots in plants, which increased K+ /Na+ , Ca2+ /Na+ , and Mg2+ /Na+ in leaves and stems, along with defending the photosynthetic organs from damage. CertainJ. Fungi 2021, 7,11 ofion ratios, like K/Na, are accepted indicators for the evaluation of salinity tolerance in tomato cultivars. Hajiboland et al. [82] reaffirmed that AMF inoculation depicted higher content of K/Na and Ca/Na levels equally in roots and shoots than non-inoculated plants. Mycorrhizal F. mosseae plants had a higher concentration of K at each salinity levels [89]. Na concentration was reduce in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants irrespective of the salinity level. Growth improvement was observed in AMF-inoculated tomato plants below salinity situations and was primarily connected with ionic variables which include larger K concentration and K+ /Na+ ratio [101]. Indeed, despite the fact that K concentration and also the K+ /Na+ ratio in leaves were positively correlated together with the growth parameters, these correlations have been particularly apparent inside the AMF-inoculated plants. The concentration of Na+ in roots was reduced in mycorrhizal treatment options, even though the accumulation of Na+ in leaves was significantly lower in plants colonized by R. etunicatum [43]. Notably, R. etunicatum was the only salt-adapted AMF when compared with F. mosseae, R. irregulare. Higher K accumulation by mycorrhizal plants in.

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