Ied 11,195 protein-coding genes that might be involved in hydrocarbon degradation pathways. With respect to rarer genera, Epicoccum, Pyrenochaetopsis, Rhizopus, and Phoma have already been reported as oil-degrading microbes [10406]. Myrothecium, as a petroleum-utilizing microbe [107], has also been found to immobilize toxic metals, which may perhaps be relevant to certain bioremediation methods as these fungi are capable of mediating metal precipitation [108]. Paraphaeosphaeria has been isolated from an asphalt seep but not investigated for its bioremediation potential [109]. Roussoella isolated from contaminated soil grows inside the presence of toluene, hexadecane, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and utilizes ligninolytic enzymes for wood degradation [110]. Perenniporia [111], Saccharicola, and Diaporthe were reported as petroleum hydrocarbon degraders [112] with potential bioremediation functions, however the latter strains have been isolated from leaf and stem tissues from plants that were expanding in soil contaminated with crude oil and were not isolated in the contaminated soil itself [113]. Gongronella is capable of degrading hydrocarbons [114], such as pyrene [115]. Microsphaeropsis is usually a promising genus for microbe-assisted phytoremediation [116,117]. Microsphaeropsis and Westerdykella exhibit the capability to degrade TRPV Agonist manufacturer poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET depolymerization), and have shown upregulated expression of lipase and esterase activities [118]. Westerdykella also utilizes polycyclic PAHs [119] with tolerance to pyrene [120] and also the depletion of fluorene [121]. Periconia, which is isolated from oil-contaminated soil, grows on petrol and kerosene, and can degrade oil [122], is one of the numerous microbes detected in soil for any phytoremediation strategy to remediate crude-oil-polluted soil [123]; it has also been isolated from a marine web site with frequent oil spills but not investigated further for crude oil degradative capabilities [124]. Phytophthora has been reported as an aromatic degrader [125], particularly for naphthalene [126], and Neocosmospora isolated from contaminated soil has demonstrated hydrocarbonoclastic skills [127]. Rarely isolated genera including Oudemansiella has shown enzymatic activity related to that of oil-degrading microbes, which also aids in its capability to decolorize polymeric dyes and may be correlated with xenobiotic degradation, just as petroleum hydrocarbon molecules are related to lignin molecules [128]. It has also been utilized to market the dissipation of pyrene from soil [129]. Paraconiothyrium has been isolated from mangroves that happen to be impacted by PAH contamination [130]. Within this study, Oudemansiella and Paraconiothyrium have been, for the first time, shown to be utilizers of petroleum hydrocarbons. Also, new oil-degrading fungi, Chaetomella, Neoascochyta, and Sydowia, have been isolated from con-Microorganisms 2021, 9,21 oftaminated soil and have not been reported elsewhere in any identified bioremediation study. Considering the fact that these fungi degrade crude oil, the possibility for their use exists in the improvement of microbial μ Opioid Receptor/MOR Inhibitor site technologies for the remediation of crude-oil-contaminated web-sites. four.two. Yeast All yeast isolates have been affiliated to Basidiomycota (65.23 ) and Ascomycota (34.78 ) phyla, which is probably the most reported taxonomic phylum in terrestrial environments (see [131,132]). The yeast detected in this study belonged to the genera Lecythophora (34.78 ), Rhodotorula (30.45 ), Cryptococcus (21.74 ), Moesziomyces (synonym from the asexual.

By mPEGS 1