D in Cartool three.43 (D. Brunet, Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory, Geneva, Switzerland) applying previously acquired electrode-position files for the 64-channel human and 22-channel NHP caps. Estimation of intracranial generators for MMN and P3a was performed making use of Cartool three.43 application with LORETA. Neural generators were estimated across two time intervals per species: human (5688 ms and 20856 ms) and NHP (4820 ms and 10448 ms) corresponding towards the MMN and P3a elements, respectively. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. We thank Steven Hillyard, Antigona Martinez, and Marla Zinni for valuable contributions to PKCγ Activator Synonyms design and style and information analysis; Thomas Liu and Valur β adrenergic receptor Inhibitor Storage & Stability Olafsson for help in EEG setup; and Dinh Diep and Aaron Cortez for help in animal training and care. Also, we thank Denis Brunet for assistance with establishing NHP inverse options. Stimulus presentation for this experiment was performed applying the Cogent 2000 and Cogent graphics software (MATLAB toolbox), created by teams at the Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience and University College London. Cartool computer software (http://brainmapping.unige.ch/cartool) was programmed by Denis Brunet (Functional Brain Mapping Laboratory) and supported by the Center for Biomedical Imaging of Geneva and Lausanne.1. Rissling AJ, Light GA (2010) Neurophysiological measures of sensory registration, stimulus discrimination, and selection in schizophrenia individuals. Curr Best Behav Neurosci 4:28309. two. Javitt DC, Zukin SR (1991) Current advances in the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 148(ten):1301308. 3. Umbricht D, et al. (2000) Ketamine-induced deficits in auditory and visual contextdependent processing in healthful volunteers: Implications for models of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57(12):1139147. 4. Garrido MI, Kilner JM, Kiebel SJ, Friston KJ (2007) Evoked brain responses are generated by feedback loops. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(52):209610966. five. Sutton S, Braren M, Zubin J, John ER (1965) Evoked-potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 150(3700):1187188. 6. Baribeau-Braun J, Picton TW, Gosselin JY (1983) Schizophrenia: A neurophysiological evaluation of abnormal data processing. Science 219(4586):87476. 7. Wynn JK, Sugar C, Horan WP, Kern R, Green MF (2010) Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functioning in schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry 67(ten):94047. eight. van der Stelt O, Belger A (2007) Application of electroencephalography for the study of cognitive and brain functions in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 33(four):95570. 9. Jahshan C, et al. (2012) Cross-diagnostic comparison of duration mismatch negativity and P3a in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disord 14(3):23948. 10. Sereno MI, Tootell RBH (2005) From monkeys to humans: What do we now know about brain homologies Curr Opin Neurobiol 15(2):13544. 11. N t en R, et al. (2011) The mismatch negativity: An index of cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric and neurological illnesses and in ageing. Brain 134(Pt 12):3435453. 12. Pekkonen E, Jousm i V, Reinikainen K, Partanen J (1995) Automatic auditory discrimination is impaired in Parkinson’s disease. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 95(1):472. 13. Vecchio F, M ttS (2011) The usage of auditory event-related potentials in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2011:653173. 14. Garrido MI, Kilner JM, Stephan KE, Friston KJ (2009) The mismatch negativity: A review of underlying mechanisms. Clin Neurophysio.

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