Illness (CKD). Limitations of this study include things like the fairly little sample
Illness (CKD). Limitations of this study consist of the comparatively modest sample of individuals who have been tested for features of TD and numbers who had available HBV serology, limiting the power from the analyses to demonstrate correlations of postulated threat components with TD. Provided the robust association amongst TDF use and HBsAg + status, this may well also have introduced confounding by indication. Furthermore, the prevalence of proteinuria and TD may have been over-estimated given that this was a cross-sectional study without repeated measurement, and in just more than half of sufferers proteinuria was not confirmed or quantified by measuring uPCR.Conclusions In summary this study has shown that each TD and proteinuria are frequent amongst Ghanaians taking ART, and TDF use is independently associated with both of these outcomes. Additional studies are required assessing clinical outcomes such as decline in eGRF/CrCl and mortality within this population to evaluate the clinical significance of these findings.Abbreviations HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus; HIVAN: HIV-associated nephropathy; ART: ER beta/ESR2 Protein MedChemExpress antiretroviral therapy; ESRD: Finish stage renal illness; HBV: Hepatitis B virus; TD: Tubular dysfunction. Competing interests DRC has received reimbursements from Gilead and ViiV for attending conferences. None from the remaining authors have any relevant interests to declare. Authors’ contributions DRC developed the study and assisted with evaluation and manuscript preparation. FSS, assisted with study design, analysed the information and critically evaluated the manuscript. EK, VP, DO and ALO assisted with sample analysis, information collection and critically evaluated the manuscript. RP and GBA assisted with study design and style and critically evaluated the manuscript. All authors read and authorized the final manuscript. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the nurses and individuals at KATH HIV clinic for assistance with this study. We would also prefer to acknowledge Daniel Chadwick, Edwin Eshun, Edward Allen and Rosie Keegan’s assistance with data and sample collection. This study received monetary assistance in the South Tees Infectious Diseases Study Fund. Author specifics 1 Centre for Clinical Infection, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough TS4 3BW, UK. 2Kwame Nkrumah University of Science Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 3Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. 4University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.Chadwick et al. BMC Nephrology (2015) 16:Web page 5 ofReceived: 24 June 2015 Accepted: 24 NovemberReferences 1. Szczech LA, Gange SJ, van der Horst C, Bartlett JA, Young M, Cohen MH, et al. Predictors of proteinuria and renal failure among females with HIV infection. Kidney Int. 2002;61:19502. two. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Reiss P, De Wit S, Sedlacek D, Beniowski M, et al. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive sufferers. AIDS. 2010;24:16678. three. Daar ES, Tierney C, Fischl MA, Sax PE, Mollan K, Budhathoki C, et al. Atazanavir plus ritonavir or Lipocalin-2/NGAL Protein Storage & Stability efavirenz as a part of a 3-drug regimen for initial treatment of HIV-1. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:4456. 4. Campbell LJ, Ibrahim F, Fisher M, Holt SG, Hendry BM, Post FA. Spectrum of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients. HIV Med. 2009;10:3296. five. Lucas GM, Eustace JA, Sozio S, Mentari EK, Appiah KA, Moore RD. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and also the incidence of HIV-1-associated nephropathy: a 12-year cohort study. AIDS. 2004;18:541. six. Atta MG. Diagnosis and natural history of HIV-associ.

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