Expression of SelSFigure 10. Immunofluorescence of endogenous SelS following siRNA remedy in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells have been treated with individual siRNAs as indicated. Immediately after 72 hours the cells were fixed and processed for immunofluorescence as described in Materials and Methods. Panel a: untreated cells, b: non-targeting manage siRNA, c d: siRNAs directed at the coding area that target each mRNAs, e: variant 1-specific siRNA, f: variant 2-specific siRNA. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062102.gthat examined the minimal SECIS components from all human selenoprotein mRNAs, the SelS SECIS was consistently amongst the weakest SECIS components when tested for UGA-recoding activity in two cell lines, at the same time as within a cell-free technique [54]. This was accomplished using SECIS components of ,100 nucleotides, and our study demonstrates that the activity of the SelS SECIS is further supressed inside the context of its 39UTR. SBP2 binding can also be a prerequisite for UGA recoding, along with the interaction of SBP2 together with the SelS SECIS is also weak [55]. In contrast, overexpression of SelS appears robust by immunofluorescence and western blot and can reach levels that distort the architecture of the ER itself [21]. The discrepancy between these observations could be explained by a mixed population of protein isoforms. Overexpression of a SelS construct that could create a selenoprotein in cell culture would need to overcome the obstacles of a poor SECIS element, deficient selenium supply and competitors for limiting SBP2 in order to be expressed in the selenoprotein form. Therefore, it is actually most likely a truncated SelS protein that does not contain Sec would be expressed under standard cell culture circumstances. Additional support for a vital part of Sec in SelS function is the fact that the penultimate Sec participates in an intramolecularPLOS A single | www.plosone.orginteraction that appears to affect the regional conformation with the carboxy-terminus of SelS [20].Pamoic acid Technical Information A recent study was performed to examine the structure from the cytoplasmic domain of SelS where the Sec residue was replaced by a cysteine to facilitate expression [20].Matuzumab Technical Information It was discovered that although the starting of this protein is helical in nature, the C-terminal region is intrinsically disordered.PMID:23357584 Most interestingly, they show that a disulfide bond exists among Cys174 and Cys188, which suggests the existence of a stable selenosulfide in the native protein. Conformational modifications in response to the redox state in the protein have been restricted to residues 173-189. We propose that the regulation of this selenosulfide bond formation would be controlled not simply in response to oxidation state, but additionally by the presence or absence of the Sec residue. The amino acid sequence in between the Cys174 and Sec188 can also be exceptionally conserved across SelS proteins (Figure 11A), despite the observation that disordered regions generally mutate at larger prices [56], suggesting an important function for this area. It was proposed that the selenosulfide bond in SelS could function to minimize bonds in misfolded proteins that had been resistant to unfolding within the ER lumen as a result of its greater reduction potential [20], though the conservation with the intervening sequence might reflect an additionalExpression of SelSfunction for this region. This suggests a model where this conserved area is caged when the selenoprotein is in its oxidized state, whereas it is flexible and out there for interaction in its lowered state (Figure 11B). In contrast, the non-Sec containing protein would be co.

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