Noparticles, like in vivo assembly of RNA arrays [57]; nanostructures made of bacterial noncoding RNA [58]; RNA triangle assembly guided by proteins [59]; construction of RNA squares [60,61] and hexamers [523] (Shu Y, Haque F, Shu D, Li W, Zhu Z, Kotb M, Lyubchenko Y, Guo P: Fabrication of 14 diverse RNA nanoparticles for precise tumor targeting with no accumulation in normal organs. RNA 2012, submitted for publication); assembly of numerous RNA aptamers to boost receptor binding efficiency [62]; buildingCurr Opin Biotechnol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2014 August 01.Schwartz and GuoPageblock fabrication utilizing RNA junctions; building of tecto-RNA; plus the application of HIV kissing loops [636]. In spite of the fact that great strides have been made inside the design and application of RNA nanoparticles, RNA nanotechnology as a field is still in its infancy.Coelenterazine h Technical Information The application of RNA nanotechnology necessitates the collective function of an RNA nanotechnology community and an interdisciplinary method. The getting that RNA nanoparticles can especially target to cancer for the delivery of siRNA, miRNA, and ribozymes with no accumulation in liver, lung and other standard organs [343567] and without toxicity [67] makes RNA nanoparticles perfect reagents for cancer remedy.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptAcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Daniel Binzel, Hui Zhang, Yi Shu, Zhengyi Zhao, Eva Beabout, Zheng Cui, Brent Hallahan, and Jeannie Haak for their help in preparing this assessment; and Dr Francois Major for his consent to show the image around the cover of Molecular Cell. The investigation inside the authors’ labs was supported by NIH EB003730, EB012135, and NIH Nanomedicine Development Center: Phi29 DNA Packaging Motor for Nanomedicine (PN2 EY 018230), and NCI Cancer Nanotechnology Platform Partnership System: RNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy (CA151648); both directed by Guo who is a co-founder of Kylin Therapeutics, Inc.HBC Epigenetic Reader Domain , and Biomotor and Nucleic Acids Nanotech Development, Ltd.PMID:35126464 References and encouraged readingPapers of unique interest, published within the period of assessment, happen to be highlighted as: of particular interest of outstanding interest1. Wang F, Mei Z, Qi Y, Yan C, Hu Q, Wang J, Shi Y. Structure and mechanism from the hexameric MecA-ClpC molecular machine. Nature. 2011; 471:33135. [PubMed: 21368759] 2. Grainge I, Lesterlin C, Sherratt DJ. Activation of XerCD-dif recombination by the FtsK DNA translocase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011; 39:5140148. [PubMed: 21371996] three. Lowe J, Ellonen A, Allen MD, Atkinson C, Sherratt DJ, Grainge I. Molecular mechanism of sequence-directed DNA loading and translocation by FtsK. Mol Cell. 2008; 31:49809. [PubMed: 18722176] four. Guo P, Erickson S, Anderson D. A little viral RNA is necessary for in vitro packaging of bacteriophage phi29 DNA. Science. 1987; 236:69094. [PubMed: 3107124] 5 Guo P, Zhang C, Chen C, Trottier M, Garver K. Inter-RNA interaction of phage phi29 pRNAto type a hexameric complex for viral DNA transportation. Mol Cell. 1998; 2:14955. It reports that phi29 DNA-packaging motor is geared by six pRNA, and RNA nanoparticles of dimer, trimer, and hexamer is usually assembled from reengineered RNA fragments via hand-in-hand interaction of your interlocking loops. This can be a pioneering paper that proves the idea of RNA nanotechnology and proposes that viral DNA-packaging occurs due to a dsDNA mechanism equivalent to that applied by the hexamer.

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